Лабораторная работа
в среде программирования Haskell

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Среда программирования: Haskell

Название работы: HOMEWORK #2

Вид работы: Лабораторная работа

Описание: Лабораторная работа на языке Haskell.

Task 1
1. Create a module named HW2.T1 and define the following data types in it:
data Option a = None | Some a
data Pair a = P a a
data Quad a = Q a a a a
data Annotated e a = a :# e
infix 0 :#
data Except e a = Error e | Success a
data Prioritised a = Low a | Medium a | High a
data Stream a = a :> Stream a
infixr 5 :>
data List a = Nil | a :. List a
infixr 5 :.
data Fun i a = F (i -> a)
data Tree a = Leaf | Branch (Tree a) a (Tree a)
2. For each of those types, implement a function of the following form:
mapF :: (a -> b) -> (F a -> F b)
That is, implement the following functions:
mapOption :: (a -> b) -> (Option a -> Option b)
mapPair :: (a -> b) -> (Pair a -> Pair b)
mapQuad :: (a -> b) -> (Quad a -> Quad b)
mapAnnotated :: (a -> b) -> (Annotated e a -> Annotated e b)
mapExcept :: (a -> b) -> (Except e a -> Except e b)
mapPrioritised :: (a -> b) -> (Prioritised a -> Prioritised b)
mapStream :: (a -> b) -> (Stream a -> Stream b)
mapList :: (a -> b) -> (List a -> List b)
mapFun :: (a -> b) -> (Fun i a -> Fun i b)
mapTree :: (a -> b) -> (Tree a -> Tree b)
These functions must modify only the elements and preserve the overall structure
(e.g. do not reverse the list, do not rebalance the tree, do not swap the pair).
This property is witnessed by the following laws:
mapF id id
mapF f mapF g mapF (f g)
You must implement these functions by hand, without using any predefined functions
(not even from Prelude) or deriving.

Task 2
Create a module named HW2.T2. For each type from the first task except Tree, implement
functions of the following form:
distF :: (F a, F b) -> F (a, b)
wrapF :: a -> F a
That is, implement the following functions:
distOption :: (Option a, Option b) -> Option (a, b)
distPair :: (Pair a, Pair b) -> Pair (a, b)
distQuad :: (Quad a, Quad b) -> Quad (a, b)
distAnnotated :: Semigroup e => (Annotated e a, Annotated e b) -> Annotated e (a, b)
distExcept :: (Except e a, Except e b) -> Except e (a, b)
distPrioritised :: (Prioritised a, Prioritised b) -> Prioritised (a, b)
distStream :: (Stream a, Stream b) -> Stream (a, b)
distList :: (List a, List b) -> List (a, b)
distFun :: (Fun i a, Fun i b) -> Fun i (a, b)
wrapOption :: a -> Option a
wrapPair :: a -> Pair a
wrapQuad :: a -> Quad a
wrapAnnotated :: Monoid e => a -> Annotated e a
wrapExcept :: a -> Except e a
wrapPrioritised :: a -> Prioritised a
wrapStream :: a -> Stream a
wrapList :: a -> List a
wrapFun :: a -> Fun i a
The following laws must hold:
distF (wrapF a, wrapF b) wrapF (a, b)
distF (p, distF (q, r)) distF (distF (p, q), r)
Left and right identity:
distF (wrapF (), q) q
distF (p, wrapF ()) p
In the laws stated above, we reason up to the following isomorphisms:
((a, b), c) (a, (b, c)) -- for associativity
((), b) b -- for left identity
(a, ()) a -- for right identity
There is more than one way to implement some of these functions. In addition to the laws,
take the following expectations into account:
distPrioritised must pick the higher priority out of the two.
distList must associate each element of the first list with each element of the second
list (i.e. the resulting list is of length n m).
You must implement these functions by hand, using only:
data types that you defined in HW.T1
<> and mempty for Annotated

Task 3
Create a module named HW2.T3. For Option, Except, Annotated, List, and Fun define a
function of the following form:
joinF :: F (F a) -> F a
That is, implement the following functions:
joinOption :: Option (Option a) -> Option a
joinExcept :: Except e (Except e a) -> Except e a
joinAnnotated :: Semigroup e => Annotated e (Annotated e a) -> Annotated e a
joinList :: List (List a) -> List a
joinFun :: Fun i (Fun i a) -> Fun i a
The following laws must hold:
joinF (mapF joinF m) joinF (joinF m)
In other words, given F (F (F a)), it does not matter whether we join the outer layers
or the inner layers first.
Left and right identity:
joinF (wrapF m) m
joinF (mapF wrapF m) m
In other words, layers created by wrapF are identity elements to joinF.
Given F a, you can add layers outside/inside to get F (F a), but joinF flattens it back
into F a without any other changes to the structure.
Furthermore, joinF is strictly more powerful than distF and can be used to define it:
distF (p, q) = joinF (mapF (\a -> mapF (\b -> (a, b)) q) p)
At the same time, this is only one of the possible distF definitions (e.g. List admits at least
two lawful distF). It is common in Haskell to expect distF and joinF to agree in behavior,
so the above equation must hold. (Do not redefine distF using joinF, though: it would be
correct but not the point of the exercise).

Task 4
1. Create a module named HW2.T4 and define the following data type in it:
data State s a = S { runS :: s -> Annotated s a }
2. Implement the following functions:
mapState :: (a -> b) -> State s a -> State s b
wrapState :: a -> State s a
joinState :: State s (State s a) -> State s a
modifyState :: (s -> s) -> State s ()
Using those functions, define Functor, Applicative, and Monad instances:
instance Functor (State s) where
fmap = mapState
instance Applicative (State s) where
pure = wrapState
p <*> q = Control.Monad.ap p q
instance Monad (State s) where
m >>= f = joinState (fmap f m)
These instances will enable the use of do-notation with State.
The semantics of State are such that the following holds:
runS (do modifyState f; modifyState g; return a) x
a :# g (f x)
In other words, we execute stateful actions left-to-right, passing the state from one to
3. Define the following data type, representing a small language:
data Prim a =
Add a a -- (+)
| Sub a a -- (-)
| Mul a a -- (*)
| Div a a -- (/)
| Abs a -- abs
| Sgn a -- signum
data Expr = Val Double | Op (Prim Expr)
For notational convenience, define the following instances:
instance Num Expr where
x + y = Op (Add x y)
x * y = Op (Mul x y)
fromInteger x = Val (fromInteger x)
instance Fractional Expr where
So that (3.14 + 1.618 :: Expr) produces this syntax tree:
Op (Add (Val 3.14) (Val 1.618))
4. Using do-notation for State and combinators we defined for it (pure, modifyState),
define the evaluation function:
eval :: Expr -> State [Prim Double] Double
In addition to the final result of evaluating an expression, it accumulates a trace of all
individual operations:
runS (eval (2 + 3 * 5 - 7)) []
10 :# [Sub 17 7, Add 2 15, Mul 3 5]
The head of the list is the last operation, this way adding another operation to the trace
is O(1).
You can use the trace to observe the evaluation order. Consider this expression:
(a * b) + (x * y)
In eval, we choose to evaluate (a * b) first and (x * y) second, even though the
opposite is also possible and would not affect the final result of the computation.

Task 5
1. Create a module named HW2.T5 and define the following data type in it:
data ExceptState e s a = ES { runES :: s -> Except e (Annotated s a) }
This type is a combination of Except and State, allowing a stateful computation to
abort with an error.
2. Implement the following functions:
mapExceptState :: (a -> b) -> ExceptState e s a -> ExceptState e s b
wrapExceptState :: a -> ExceptState e s a
joinExceptState :: ExceptState e s (ExceptState e s a) -> ExceptState e s a
modifyExceptState :: (s -> s) -> ExceptState e s ()
throwExceptState :: e -> ExceptState e s a
Using those functions, define Functor, Applicative, and Monad instances.
3. Using do-notation for ExceptState and combinators we defined for it (pure,
modifyExceptState, throwExceptState), define the evaluation function:
data EvaluationError = DivideByZero
eval :: Expr -> ExceptState EvaluationError [Prim Double] Double
It works just as eval from the previous task but aborts the computation if division by
zero occurs:
runES (eval (2 + 3 * 5 - 7)) []
Success (10 :# [Sub 17 7, Add 2 15, Mul 3 5])
runES (eval (1 / (10 - 5 * 2))) []
Error DivideByZero

Task 6
1. Create a module named HW2.T6 and define the following data type in it:
data ParseError = ErrorAtPos Natural
newtype Parser a = P (ExceptState ParseError (Natural, String) a)
deriving newtype (Functor, Applicative, Monad)
Here we use ExceptState for an entirely different purpose: to parse data from a string.
Our state consists of a Natural representing how many characters we have already
consumed (for error messages) and the String is the remainder of the input.
2. Implement the following function:
runP :: Parser a -> String -> Except ParseError a
3. Let us define a parser that consumes a single character:
pChar :: Parser Char
pChar = P $ ES \(pos, s) ->
case s of
[] -> Error (ErrorAtPos pos)
(c:cs) -> Success (c :# (pos + 1, cs))
Study this definition:
What happens when the string is empty?
How does the parser state change when a character is consumed?
Write a comment that explains pChar.
4. Implement a parser that always fails:
parseError :: Parser a
Define the following instance:
instance Alternative Parser where
empty = parseError
(<|>) = ...
instance MonadPlus Parser -- No methods.
So that p <|> q tries to parse the input string using p, but in case of failure tries q.
Make sure that the laws hold:
empty <|> p p
p <|> empty p
5. Implement a parser that checks that there is no unconsumed input left (i.e. the string in
the parser state is empty), and fails otherwise:
pEof :: Parser ()
6. Study the combinators provided by Control.Applicative and Control.Monad. The
following are of particular interest:
We can use them to construct more interesting parsers. For instance, here is a parser
that accepts only non-empty sequences of uppercase letters:
pAbbr :: Parser String
pAbbr = do
abbr <- some (mfilter Data.Char.isUpper pChar)
pure abbr
It can be used as follows:
ghci> runP pAbbr "HTML"
Success "HTML"
ghci> runP pAbbr "JavaScript"
Error (ErrorAtPos 1)
7. Using parser combinators, define the following function:
parseExpr :: String -> Except ParseError Expr
It must handle floating-point literals of the form 4.09, the operators + - * / with the
usual precedence (multiplication and division bind tighter than addition and
subtraction), and parentheses.
Example usage:
ghci> parseExpr "3.14 + 1.618 * 2"
Success (Op (Add (Val 3.14) (Op (Mul (Val 1.618) (Val 2.0)))))
ghci> parseExpr "2 * (1 + 3)"
Success (Op (Mul (Val 2.0) (Op (Add (Val 1.0) (Val 3.0)))))
ghci> parseExpr "24 + Hello"
Error (ErrorAtPos 3)

Год: 2021

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